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These papers describe characteristics of the Family Spirit intervention and its effectiveness in improving
parenting outcomes and mothers’ and children’s emotional and behavioral functioning from pregnancy
to 3 years postpartum.

  1. Barlow A, Varipatis-Baker E, Speakman K, et al. Home-visiting intervention to improve child care
    among American Indian adolescent mothers: A randomized trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.
    2006; 160(11):1101-1107.
  2. Walkup JT, Barlow A, Mullany BC, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional-
    delivered in-home intervention for young reservation-based American Indian mothers. J Am
    Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48(6):591-601.
  3. Barlow A, Mullany B, Neault N, et al. Effect of a Paraprofessional Home-Visiting Intervention on
    American Indian Teen Mothers’ and Infants’ Behavioral Risks: A Randomized Controlled
    Trial. American Journal of Psychiatry 2013; 170:83–93.
  4. Barlow A, Mullany B, Neault N, et al. Paraprofessional Delivered, Home-Visiting Intervention for
    American Indian Teen Mothers and Children: Three-Year Outcomes from a Randomized
    Controlled Trial. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2015; 172(2):154-162. doi:
  5. Rosenstock S, Ingalls A, Foy Cuddy R, et al. Effect of a home-visiting intervention to reduce early
    childhood obesity among native american children: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr.