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Proven Impact

Family Spirit is currently the largest, most rigorous, and only evidence-based home-visiting program ever designed specifically for Native American families. Evidence from three randomized controlled trials has documented the following program outcomes:


  • Increased maternal knowledge
  • Increased parent self-efficacy
  • Reduced parent stress
  • Improved home safety attitudes

Maternal Outcomes

  • Decreased maternal depression
  • Decreased substance use
  • Fewer behavior problems in mothers

Child Outcomes

  • Fewer behavior problems in children through age 3 (externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation)
  • Predicts lower risk of substance use and behavioral health problems over the life course